Sunday, January 22, 2017

[Primatology • 2016] Cheirogaleus shethi • A New Species of Dwarf Lemur (Cheirogaleidae: Cheirogaleus medius Group) from the Ankarana and Andrafiamena-Andavakoera Massifs, Madagascar

Ankarana or Sheth’s Dwarf Lemur  |  Cheirogaleus shethi 

Frasier, Lei, McLain, Taylor, Bailey, Ginter, Nash,
Randriamampionona, Groves, Mittermeier & Louis, 2016


A new species of dwarf lemur, Cheirogaleus shethi sp. nov., of the C. medius group is described from the dry and transitional forests of northern Madagascar. This species can be found along the forest corridor from Ankarana Special Reserve east to the Analamerana Special Reserve down to the Bekaraoka forest in the Loky-Manambato Protected Area. This species is genetically distinct from other members of the C. medius species group and is sister to a poorly known lineage in Sambava. The identification of this new species highlights the importance of northern Madagascar as a reservoir of biodiversity.

Key Words: Dwarf lemurs, primate, Strepsirrhini, taxonomy

Figure 5. Illustration of Cheirogaleus shethi (Stephen D. Nash © Conservation International) and
photographs of KAR15.1 taken at Ankarana Special Reserve (photos by Richard Randriamampionona). 

Cheirogaleus shethi

Formerly Cheirogaleus sp. nov. 4, also CCS6 (Lei et al. 2014);
 in part C. sp. Bekaraoka Sambava (Thiele et al. 2013).

Distribution: Known from northern Madagascar, from Ankarana east to Bekaraoka in dry and transitional forests. Found in the Ankarana Special Reserve, Andrafiamena-Andavakoera Protected Area, Analamerana Special Reserve, and Loky-Manambato Protected Area. 

Etymology: This new species is named after Brian Sheth, the Chair of the Board of the NGO Global Wildlife Conservation. Brian is deeply committed to biodiversity conservation worldwide, and is a leading philanthropist for species and ecosystem conservation. He has supported many projects in Madagascar, including research and the establishment and management of nature reserves. His passion and drive to help save the diversity of life on our planet has been an inspiration to all around him. 

Vernacular names: Ankarana or Sheth’s Dwarf Lemur.

Figure 4. Map of Madagascar with the ranges of Cheirogaleus sp. nov. 4 and closely related Cheirogaleus species highlighted to show the geographic distance between lineages. Identification numbers on the map correspond to ID numbers of animals listed in Table 1. Photographs of C. andysabini and C. sp. nov. 4 are provided to show a clear difference in pelage and the distance between the ranges of the two lineages from different species groups. 

Cynthia L. Frasier, Runhua Lei, Adam T. McLain, Justin M. Taylor, Carolyn A. Bailey, Azure L. Ginter, Stephen D. Nash, Richard Randriamampionona, Colin P. Groves, Russell A. Mittermeier and Edward E. Louis Jr. 2016. A New Species of Dwarf Lemur (Cheirogaleidae: Cheirogaleus medius Group) from the Ankarana and Andrafiamena-Andavakoera Massifs, Madagascar.   Primate Conservation. (30); 59–72.   

[Herpetology • 2017] Eleutherodactylus cattus • Cryptic within Cryptic: Genetics, Morphometrics, and Bioacoustics Delimitate A New Species of Eleutherodactylus (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae) from Eastern Cuba

Eleutherodactylus cattus 
 Rodríguez, Dugo-Cota, Montero-Mendieta, Gonzalez-Voyer, Bosch, Vences & Vilà, 2017

  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4221.5.1 

We studied the variation in genetics, bioacustics, and morphology in Eleutherodactylus glamyrus, a regionally endemic frog species restricted to high elevations in the Sierra Maestra Massif, Western Cuba that was originally described as a cryptic species hidden under the name E. auriculatus. Genetic analysis of mtDNA sequences of the 16S and cob genes identify two allopatric and strongly supported mitochondrial clades (phylogroups) which also showed no haplotype sharing in the nuclear Rag-1 gene. Bioacustic, and morphological comparisons concordantly identify these two phylogroups as independent evolutionary lineages. Therefore, we herein restrict the name Eleutherodactylus glamyrus Estrada and Hedges to populations represented in our analyses as the western phylogroup (Cordillera del Turquino to Pico La Bayamesa) and consider specimens from the eastern phylogroup (Sierra del Cobre) to represent a new species described and named as Eleutherodactylus cattus. Our results add to the growing list of Eleutherodactylus species endemic to Cuba and highlight the importance of combining different sources of evidence for obtaining robust assessments of species limits in amphibians.

Keywords: Amphibia, Terrarana, species delimitation, integrative taxonomy, Caribbean

Eleutherodactylus cattusMale (CZACC14.14153, paratype) calling
in the trail to Pico El Gato, Sierra del Cobre, 844m a.s.l.. 

Etymology. The species name is an invariable noun in apposition to the genus name, derived from Latin cattus cat. It refers to the type locality Loma del Gato (Cat Mountain Ridge) in the Sierra Maestra Mountains, a locality 

Distribution. This species is only known from the type locality but assuming it has specialized to high elevations like its sister taxon, Eleutherodactylus glamyrus, it could well be found in neighboring areas above 800 m a.s.l..

Ariel Rodríguez, Álvaro Dugo-Cota, Santiago Montero-Mendieta, Alejandro Gonzalez-Voyer, Roberto Alonso Bosch, Miguel Vences and Carles Vilà. 2017. Cryptic within Cryptic: Genetics, Morphometrics, and Bioacoustics Delimitate A New Species of Eleutherodactylus (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae) from Eastern Cuba.
  Zootaxa. 4221(5); 501–552.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4221.5.1

[Botany • 2017] Pitcairnia singularis • A New Species (Pitcairnioideae, Bromeliaceae) from Jalisco, Mexico

Pitcairnia singularis  Flores-Argüelles, Espejo & López-Ferr.  


Pitcairnia singularis, known only from the municipality of Puerto Vallarta in the state of Jalisco, Mexico, is here described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by very narrow, epetiolate, deciduous normal leaves, a simple inflorescence with 14–20 pedicellate, secund, white flowers, and petals 1.5–1.7 cm long, without appendages. An identification key has been included for all the species of the genus present in the state of Jalisco, Mexico.

Keywords: Jalisco, Pitcairnia subgenus Pitcairnia, Sierra del Cuale, Monocots

FIGURE 1. Pitcairnia singularis  Flores-Argüelles, Espejo & López-Ferr.  
A. Plants in flower at type locality. B. Detail of the basal portion of Pitcairnia singularis, showing the reduced sheath like and the normal leaves. C. Oak forest habitat of P. singularis Flores-Argüelles, Espejo & López-Ferr. 

Pitcairnia singularis Flores-Argüelles, Espejo & López-Ferr., spec. nov. (Figs. 1–3)
The new species is characterized by the following: deciduous normal leaves without distinct petioles; inflorescence simple, with 14–20 pedicellate, secund, white flowers; petals 1.5–1.7 cm long, without basal appendages.

Type:— MEXICO. Jalisco: municipio de Puerto Vallarta, Ojo de Agua, 20° 31’ 20.22” N, 105° 11’ 37.27” W, 1195 m, bosque de Quercus, 22 August 2013 (fl), A. Flores-Argüelles & A.R. Romero-Guzmán 776 (holotype: UAMIZ, isotype: IBUG).

Etymology:— The specific epithet refers to the singular characteristics of the new species that distinguish it from any other member of the genus.

Alejandra Flores Argüelles, Adolfo Espejo-Serna and Ana Rosa López-Ferrari. 2017.
Pitcairnia singularis (Pitcairnioideae, Bromeliaceae), A New Species from Jalisco, Mexico.  Phytotaxa. 291(4); 275–280.  DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.291.4.4


[Ichthyology • 2017] Gobiesox lanceolatus • A New Species of Clingfish (Teleostei: Gobiesocidae) from Los Frailes Submarine Canyon, Gulf of California, Mexico

Gobiesox lanceolatus 
 Hastings & Conway, 2017 


Gobiesox lanceolatus is described from a single specimen collected from 300 meters depth in the Los Frailes submarine canyon in the southwestern Gulf of California. The "Canyon Clingfish" is unique within Gobiesox in having a lanceolate caudal fin, with the central rays longer than those above and below them. It is also distinguished by 14 dorsal-fin rays (first tiny and unsegmented), 11 anal-fin rays, 28 pectoral-fin rays, anus slightly closer to anal-fin origin than to posterior margin of pelvic disc, and dorsal-fin origin in front of vertical from anus. It is most similar to Gobiesox eugrammus, known from Isla Guadelupe, the coast of outer Baja California and southern California. This is the deepest record for a species of Gobiesox and only four other species of clingfishes are known from greater depths.

Keywords: Pisces, deep water, depth records, Soucoupe diving saucer

Etymology. lanceolatus, spearlike, from lancea, a short spear, in reference to the lanceolate caudal fin - the single most distinctive (and unique) feature of the species. We suggest the common name of "Canyon Clingfish" in reference to the type locality of this species.

 Philip A. Hastings and Kevin W. Conway. 2017. Gobiesox lanceolatus, A New Species of Clingfish (Teleostei: Gobiesocidae) from Los Frailes Submarine Canyon, Gulf of California, Mexico.  Zootaxa.  4221(3); 393–400. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4221.3.8

[Botany • 2017] Athyrium haleakalae • A New Rheophytic Fern Species (Athyriaceae) from East Maui, Hawaiian Islands: with Notes on Its Distribution, Ecology, and Conservation Status

Athyrium haleakalae K.R. Wood & W.L. Wagner   

Athyrium haleakalae K.R. Wood & W.L. Wagner (Athyriaceae), a small lithophytic fern from East Maui, Hawaiian Islands, is described and illustrated. Notes on its distribution, ecology, and conservation status are also presented. The new species appears to be an obligate rheophyte, preferring sites of fast moving water along concave walls of streams and waterfalls. Athyrium haleakalae differs from the only other known Hawaiian Athyrium, A. microphyllum (Sm.) Alston, in having rhizomes 1–3 cm long and lanceolate blades 1- to 2-pinnate-pinnatifid, 3–8(–11) × 1–3(–4) cm, as compared to A. microphyllum having rhizomes (10–)15–30 cm long and ovate to ovate-triangular blades 3-pinnate-pinnatifid to 4-pinnate, 30–82 × 20–50 cm.

Keywords: Athyriaceae, Athyrium, new species, rheophyte, Hawaiian Islands, East Maui endemic, Critically Endangered

Figure 4. A Mature plants of Athyrium haleakalae, showing habitat preference along concave hollow of stream, Hana Forest Reserve, East Maui, HI (22 Aug 2013, Wood & Oppenheimer 15639) B Mature plant of Athyrium microphyllum, showing terrestrial habitat preference, erect rhizome, and large size, Mohihi, Kaua‘i, HI (18 Dec 2014, Wood & Flynn et al. 16175). Photos by K.R. Wood. 

Figure 3. Typical habitat of Athyrium haleakalae around stream plunge pools, Hana Forest Reserve, East Maui, HI. Photo by K.R. Wood, 21 Aug 2013. 

Athyrium haleakalae K.R. Wood & W.L. Wagner, sp. nov.

  Diagnosis: Athyrium haleakalae differs from the only previously known Hawaiian Athyrium, A. microphyllum, in having rhizomes 1–3 cm long and lanceolate blades 1- to 2-pinnate-pinnatifid, 3–8(–11) × 1–3(–4) cm, as compared to A. microphyllum with rhizomes (10–)15–30 cm long and ovate to ovate-triangular blades 3-pinnate-pinnatifid to 4-pinnate, 30–82 × 20–50 cm.

Etymology: The new species is named after Haleakalā, East Maui, a massive, dormant shield volcano (3,057 m tall) and the only known location of Athyrium haleakalae.

Kenneth R. Wood and Warren L. Wagner. 2017. Athyrium haleakalae (Athyriaceae), A New Rheophytic Fern Species from East Maui, Hawaiian Islands: with Notes on Its Distribution, Ecology, and Conservation Status.
PhytoKeys. 76; 115-124. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.76.1163

[Herpetology • 2016] Review of the Rare Genus Phrynomedusa Miranda-Ribeiro, 1923 (Anura: Phyllomedusidae) with Description of a New Species; Phrynomedusa dryade

Phrynomedusa dryade 
Baêta, Giasson, Pombal & Haddad, 2016   

DOI:  10.1655/HERPMONOGRAPHS-D-15-00009.1 

We present the first taxonomic review of the genus Phrynomedusa since its description with diagnoses of the genus and species. We present a broad literature review of the genus and provide updates and remarks about the type series, tadpoles, calls, geographic distribution, and natural history of the species of Phrynomedusa. Additionally we describe a new species from município de São Luiz do Paraitinga, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Phrynomedusa dryade was initially identified as Phrynomedusa marginata; however, an integrated analysis of morphological and molecular characters enabled its recognition as a separate new species. For the first time, the advertisement call for one species of Phrynomedusa is described in detail. We describe the tadpole and present some field notes about the activity and biology of this new species.
Keywords: Atlantic Forest, Phrynomedusa dryade sp. nov., Tadpole, Taxonomy, Vocalization

Phrynomedusa Miranda-Ribeiro, 1923 
Type species.— Phrynomedusa fimbriata Miranda-Ribeiro, 1923 (3–5), by monotypy.

• Phrynomedusa fimbriata Miranda-Ribeiro, 1923
• Phrynomedusa appendiculata (A. Lutz, 1925)

FIG. 4.— Live specimen of Phrynomedusa appendiculata from Paranapiacaba, município de Santo André , São Paulo, Brazil (Photos by Gualter Lutz, Gualter Lutz Slide Collection, MNRJ). 

• Phrynomedusa marginata Izecksohn and Cruz, 1976
• Phrynomedusa vanzolinii Cruz, 1991
• Phrynomedusa bokermanni Cruz, 1991

Phrynomedusa dryade sp. nov. 

 Etymology.— The specific epithet ‘‘dryade’’ is in the genitive case and is derived from the Ancient Greek ‘‘dryas’’ (tree) and the suffix ‘‘ades’’ (from trees). The new name is a noun in apposition. In Greek mythology, dryads were the rare guardian deities of forests and woods. The German naturalist K.F.P. Martius (Martius et al. 1840) used the term ‘Dryads’ in the first phytogeographic division of Brazilian territory into five floristic regions, in which Dryads was the term used to refer to Atlantic Coastal Forest. The name of this new species refers to the occurrence of this beautiful Monkey Frog in the Atlantic Forest Domain. 

Distribution.— Phrynomedusa dryade is known only from five localities in southeastern Brazil: four localities in state of São Paulo (municípios de Cananéia, Salesópolis, Itanhaém, and São Luiz do Paraitinga) and one locality in state of Rio de Janeiro (município de Paraty; Fig. 1).

 Holotype (A) CFBH 16026, male, SVL ¼ 30.9 mm (photo by C.F.B. Haddad) and paratype (B) CFBH 7684, SVL ¼ 29.5 mm (photo by L.O.M. Giasson) of Phrynomedusa dryade, adult males from Núcleo Santa Virgínia, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, município de São Luiz do Paraitinga, São Paulo, Brazil.  

FIG. 8.— Holotype (A) CFBH 16026, male, SVL ¼ 30.9 mm (photo by C.F.B. Haddad) and
paratype (B) CFBH 7684, SVL ¼ 29.5 mm (photo by L.O.M. Giasson) of Phrynomedusa dryade, adult males from Núcleo Santa Virgínia, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, município de São Luiz do Paraitinga, São Paulo, Brazil.
Topotypes (C) MNRJ 57954; male SVL ¼ 27.6 mm (photo by J.P. Pombal, Jr.),
(D) specimen not specified (photo by I. Sazima) of Phrynomedusa marginata, males from município de Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brazil.  

 Délio Baêta, Luís Olímpio Menta Giasson, José P. Pombal and Célio Fernando Baptista Haddad. 2016. Review of the Rare Genus Phrynomedusa Miranda-Ribeiro, 1923 (Anura: Phyllomedusidae) With Description of a New Species.   Herpetological Monographs. 30(1); 49-78. DOI:  10.1655/HERPMONOGRAPHS-D-15-00009.1


[Mammalogy • 2016] Rousettus tangkokoensis • Morphological Variations and New Species Description of Genus Rousettus Bat from Gunung Duasudara Sanctuary, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

(bRousettus celebensis and (c) Rousettus tangkokoensis n. sp.

 Lengkong, Arisoesilaningsih, Hakim & Sudarto, 2016  


Bats belongs to Pteropodidae Family that spreaded evenly in Indonesia. Genus Rousettus have their morphological variances among its own species based on characteristics on each species. Among them there is fruit-feeding bats of from genus Rousettus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) that have many variances of morphology among its own species. This study was aimed to identify the morphological variations and its sex type influence of genus Rousettus bats from Gunung Duasudara Sanctuary, North Sulawesi. The locations were consisted 7 types of major vegetations at altitude range from 0 to 1351 m above sea level (asl). All habitat types were observed using Mist-net method at 1 and 3 m above the ground. There were found 452 individuals, including R. amplexicaudatus (224), R. celebensis (219) and R. tangkokoensis n. sp. (9). Nine individuals of Rousettus tangkokoensis n. sp. were newly found in lowland forest and coastal forest. These newly-found species were different from other Rousettus. There was discovered that sex type had influenced the skull and external body characters on R. amplexicaudatusRtangkokoensis n. sp. R. celebensis. However, most of other characters were statistically not-significant that indicated there was not any sexual dimorphism. According to the Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA), these morphological groups possess different specification. Therefore, the three species of genus Rousettus have statistically variation of skull and external body characters one to another.

Keywords: North Sulawesi, Gunung Duasudara Sanctuary, Rousettus 

Fig. 4. Bat species: (aRousettus amplexicaudatus, (bRousettus celebensis and (cRousettus tangkokoensis n. sp.

Etymology: The new species which is proposed using the name of Tangkoko Mt. occuring in the sanctuary area was collected by Hanry Lengkong from Manado, Indonesia. The new species is (HL) 111321 had been found in Gunung Duasudara, which the only area known where this species was collected.

Hanry Jefry Lengkong, Endang Arisoesilaningsih, Luchman Hakim and Sudarto. 2016. Morphological Variations and New Species Description of Genus Rousettus Bat from Gunung Duasudara Sanctuary, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences. 16(2); 90-101. DOI :  10.3844/ojbsci.2016.90.101

[Diplopoda • 2017] Revision of the Australian Millipede Genus Pogonosternum Jeekel, 1965 (Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae), with Descriptions of Two New Species

Pogonosternum laetificum Jeekel, 1982
Pogonosternum jeekeli Decker, 2017
Pogonosternum montanum Decker, 2017

 The southeastern Australian millipede genus Pogonosternum Jeekel, 1965 is revised. Pogonosternum nigrovirgatum (Carl, 1902), P. adrianae Jeekel, 1982 and P. laetificum Jeekel, 1982 are redescribed; Pogonosternum jeekeli Decker, sp. nov. and Pogonosternum montanum Decker, sp. nov. are described from Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania. P. nigrovirgatum infuscum Jeekel, 1982 and P. coniferum Jeekel, 1965 are junior synonyms of Pnigrovirgatum (Carl, 1902). An updated key to all five species of the genus is presented.

Keywords: Arthropoda, Australia, new species, Bass Strait.

Fig. 26. Habitus and live colouration.
APogonosternum nigrovirgatum (Carl, 1902), ♂ from Adams Creek Nature Conservation Reserve (SMNG VNR016989).
BP. adrianae Jeeker, 1982, ♂ from Grand Ridge Road (NMV K-13349).
CP. laetificum Jeeker, 1982, ♂ from Toolangi State Forest, Two Hills Road.
DPogonosternum jeekeli Decker, sp. nov., ♂ from Warby-Ovens National Park, Taminick Gap Road.
E. Pogonosternum montanum Decker, sp. nov., ♂ (left, NMV K-12183) and ♀ (right, NMV K-13351) from Linden Roth Drive.
   Scale bars = 5 mm.   DOI: 10.5852/ejt.2017.259  

Peter Decker, Robert Mesibov, Karin Voigtländer and Willi E.R. Xylander. 2017. Revision of the Australian Millipede Genus Pogonosternum Jeekel, 1965, with Descriptions of Two New Species (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae).
European Journal of Taxonomy. 259: 1–34. DOI: 10.5852/ejt.2017.259 

Saturday, January 21, 2017

[Ichthyology • 2017] Molecular based Phylogenetic Species Recognition in the Genus Pampus (Perciformes: Stromateidae) reveals Hidden Diversity in the Indian Ocean


• The phylogenetic relationships between Pampus species were determined based on 150 mitochondrial COI gene sequences.
• Morphological and molecular evidence suggests the silver pomfret, reported as Pampus argenteus, distributed in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian sea is distinct from East Asian P. argenteus.
• The silver pomfret in the Indian region represents species with genetic affinity to P. cinereus.
• Hidden species diversity among Pampus species is revealed from Bay of Bengal and Arabian waters.

Pomfrets (Genus Pampus) are commercially important fishes in the Indo Pacific region. The systematics of this genus is complicated due to morphological similarities between species. The silver pomfret from Indian waters has long been considered to be Pampus argenteus. The objective of the study was to utilize the mitochondrial COI gene to establish the molecular identity of the silver pomfret distributed in Indian waters and to resolve the phylogenetic relationships among Pampus species in the world based on sequence data in the NCBI database. Seven valid Pampus species are identified in this study. The mean genetic divergence value calculated between clades representing these species was 7.9%. The mean genetic distance between the so-called Pampus argenteus from Indian waters and sequences attributed to P. argenteus from the South China Sea, where the neotype of this species was collected, was found to be greater than 12%, strongly supporting the likelihood of the Indian species being distinct. The Indian Pampus species show very close affinity to P. cinereus, with inter species differences less than 2%. The taxonomic identity of the silver pomfret in India is also discussed here, in light of molecular and morphological evidence.

Keywords: Pampus argenteus; COI; Molecular phylogeny; Distinct species

P.R. Divya, C. Mohitha, G. Kumar Rahul, C.P. Rajool Shanis, V.S. Basheer and A. Gopalakrishnan. 2017. Molecular based Phylogenetic Species Recognition in the Genus Pampus (Perciformes: Stromateidae) reveals Hidden Diversity in the Indian Ocean. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution.  DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2016.12.030 

Friday, January 20, 2017

[Herpetology • 2017] Description of Five New Day Geckos of Cnemaspis kandiana Group (Sauria: Gekkonidae) from Sumatra and Mentawai Archipelago, Indonesia

Distribution of Cnemaspis in Sumatra.  

Cnemaspis aceh, C. andalas, C. minang, C. pagai & C. tapanuli
 Iskandar, McGuire & Amarasinghe, 2017  

Cnemaspis dezwaani
C. modiglianii & C. whittenorum  Das 2005

We investigated diminutive day geckos (SVL < 40 mm) of the genus Cnemaspis (Cnemaspis kandiana Group) from mainland Sumatra and islands along its western margin (Nias, Siberut, Pagai, and Enggano). The assemblage includes several species based on morphological evidence, five of which we describe as new. The new species occur in the Sumatran provinces of Aceh, North Sumatra, and West Sumatra. Finally, we provide a new key and redescriptions for three previously recognized species: Cnemaspis dezwaani, Cnemaspis modiglianii, and Cnemaspis whittenorum, based on recently collected material, and clarify contradictory information concerning their original descriptions and their key under each species account.

FIG. 3. Distribution of Cnemaspis in Sumatra. 

Cnemaspis pagai  Iskandar, McGuire & Amarasinghe, 2017   

Djoko T. Iskandar, Jimmy A. McGuire, and A. A. Thasun Amarasinghe. 2017. Description of Five New Day Geckos of Cnemaspis kandiana Group (Sauria: Gekkonidae) from Sumatra and Mentawai Archipelago, Indonesia.   Journal of Herpetology. 51(1); 142-153.  DOI:  10.1670/15-047


[Botany • 2017] Habenaria yookuaaensis • A New Species (Orchidaceae: Orchidioideae) from Oaxaca, Mexico

Habenaria yookuaaensis 
Mejía-Marín, Espejo, López-Ferr. & R. Jiménez


Habenaria yookuaaensis, a new species from the state of Oaxaca, is described and illustrated. The new taxon is part of the H. brevilabiataH. virensH. odontopetalaH. strictissima, and H. acalcarata complex, species with which the new entity is compared.

Keywords: Jamiltepec, Monocots, San Juan Colorado, terrestrial orchid, Mexico


Habenaria yookuaaensis Mejía-Marín, Espejo, López-Ferr. & R. Jiménez, sp. nov. (Figs. 1, 2)

Similar to Habenaria brevilabiata Richard & Galeotti (1845: 29), but habit terrestrial, with flowers white-greenish, petals oblong-falcate, and lip acuminate, with two triangular divaricate basal auricles.

Etymology:— The specific epithet refers to the name of San Juan Colorado, place where was found the new taxon, and derives from the Mixtec word “yo’o kua’a” formed by the terms “yo’o” (bejucos, lianas) and “kuaa’a” (rojo, colorado), and means “lugar de tierra colorada” (place of red soil). 

Distribution and Habitat:— Habenaria yookuaaensis is known until now from two localities in the state of Oaxaca. The plants are very scarce and grow between rocks, on moist soils rich in organic matter, under the shade of the trees on the riverbanks. It flowers in September. 

María Isabel Mejía-Marín, Adolfo Espejo-Serna, Ana Rosa López-Ferrari and Rolando Jiménez Machorro. 2017. Habenaria yookuaaensis (Orchidaceae: Orchidioideae), A New Species from Oaxaca, Mexico.
Phytotaxa. 292(1); 74–78. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.292.1.7


[PaleoIchthyology • 2017] Scleropages sinensis • First Complete Fossil Scleropages (Osteoglossomorpha) from the early Eocene, Hubei, China

Scleropages sinensis 
Zhang & Wilson, 2017
A new species of osteoglossid fish, Scleropages sinensis sp. nov., is described from the Early Eocene Xiwanpu Formation in Hunan and the Yangxi Formation in Hubei, China. The new species was attributed to Scleropages, an extant genus of Osteoglossidae, because it very closely resembles the genus in skull bones, caudal skeleton, the shape and position of fins, and reticulate scales. The new fish is very similar to extant Scleropages except: the nasals do not appear to be ornamented; the sensory pore in the antorbital is large; the posterior infraorbitals are not quite covering the dorsal limb of the preopercle; the posteroventral angle of the preopercle is produced to point; the posteroventral margin of the opercle is concave and the ventral end of the bone is produced to a point; the pectoral fin is very long and extends well behind the beginning of the pelvic fin; the vertebral count is about 46–48; the parapophyses are shorter and the upper and lower caudal rays are nearly as long as the inner rays. The new fish is closer to its Asian neighbor, S. formosus, than to its southern relative, S. leichardti. Scleropages formosus inhabits natural lakes, swamps, flooded forests, and slowly moving, deep parts of rivers with overhanging vegetative cover. It is a carnivorous fish and its food consists mainly of insects, fishes, worms, small amphibians, small mammals, and even birds. S. sinensis may live in the same natural environment and have a similar diet except for the largest items. Sexual dimorphism may exist in S. sinensis. The presumed male has a slimmer and shallower body, a relatively larger head, and a deeper mouth cleft. The discovery of Scleropages sinensis sp. nov. dates the divergence of Scleropages and Osteoglossum to no later than the Early Eocene.

 Key words: Hunan, Hubei, China; Early Eocene; Xiawanpu Formation; Yangxi Formation; Osteoglossidae

Systematic paleontology
Teleostei Müller, 1846
Osteoglossomorpha Greenwood et al., 1966
Osteoglossidae Bonaparte, 1832
 Scleropages Günther, 1864

Scleropages sinensis sp. nov.

Holotype: IVPP V 13672.2, a complete skeleton.
Referred specimens: IVPP V 12749.1–8, V 12750, V 13672.1, 3.

Locality and horizon: Specimens V 13672.1–3 and V 12750 are from Songzi County, Hubei Province, China; Yangxi Formation, Lower Eocene. Specimens V 12749.1–8 are from Xiangxiang, Hunan Province, China; Xiawanpu Formation, Eocene.

Etymology: The specific name refers to China where the specimens were found.

 Jiang-Yong Zhang and Mark V H Wilson. 2017. First Complete Fossil Scleropages (Osteoglossomorpha).  Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 55(1); 1–23